[P09] Human Very Low Density Lipoportein (VLDL), 50% glycerol22P-VL101
|Concentration:||1 mg / ml, determined by the Lowry method|
|Source:||From fresh human plasma that has tested negative for Hepatitis C, HIV-I and HIV-II antibodies as well as Hepatitis surface antigens.|
|Purification:||After series ultracentrifugations, Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) is isolated from human plasma (Density 1.006).|
|Buffer:||10 mM Tris-HCl, 0.14 M NaCl, 0.5 mM EDTA, 0.02% NaN3, pH 7.4; Preserved with 50 % glycerol.|
|Storage:||-20°C for long-term storage, 4°C for short- term storage. Aliquot to avoid repeated freezing and thawing.|
Plasma lipoproteins classes can be defined according to the densities at which they are isolated, as high (HDL), low (LDL), intermediate (IDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), and the chylomicrons. The assembly and secretion of VLDL particles takes place in liver cells. Since each VLDL particle has just one copy of apo-B100, the concentration of apo-B100 represents the number of VLDL particles. (Niu and Evans, 2011) Besides cardiovascular diseases, VLDL is associated with diabetes and Alzheimer disease. (Bjorntorp, 1990; Okuizumi et al., 1995) Study also has shown that endoplasmic reticulum stress induces hepatic steatosis via increased expression of the VLDL receptor in liver cell. (Jo et al., 2013)
Bjorntorp, P. ""Portal" Adipose Tissue as a Generator of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 10.4 (1990): 493-96.
Jo, Hyunsun, Sung Sik Choe, Kyung Cheul Shin, Hagoon Jang, Jae Ho Lee, Je Kyung Seong, Sung Hoon Back, and Jae Bum Kim. "Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induces Hepatic Steatosis via Increased Expression of the Hepatic Very Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor." Hepatology 57.4 (2013): 1366-377.
Niu, You-Guo, and Rhys D. Evans. "Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein: Complex Particles in Cardiac Energy Metabolism." Journal of Lipids 2011 (2011): 1-9.
Okuizumi, Kaoru, Osamu Onodera, Yoshio Namba, Kazuhiko Ikeda, Tokuo Yamamoto, Koji Seki, Akira Ueki, Shinichiro Nanko, Hajime Tanaka, Hitoshi Takahashi, Kiyomitsu Oyanagi, Hidehiro Mizusawa, Ichiro Kanazawa, and Shoji Tsuji. "Genetic Association of the Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) Receptor Gene with Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease." Nature Genetics Nat Genet11.2 (1995): 207-09.
|[P09]||2018||Lutomski, Corinne A.; Gordon, Scott M.; Remaley, Alan T.; Jarrold, Martin F. (2018): Resolution of Lipoprotein Subclasses by Charge Detection Mass Spectrometry. In Anal. Chem. 90 (11), pp. 6353–6356. DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.8b01127.|
|[P09]||2014||Braesch-Andersen, Sten; Beckman, Lena; Paulie, Staffan; Kumagai-Braesch, Makiko (2014): ApoD mediates binding of HDL to LDL and to growing T24 carcinoma. In PLoS ONE 9 (12), e115180. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115180.|
|[P09]||2013||Jo, Hyunsun; Choe, Sung Sik; Shin, Kyung Cheul; Jang, Hagoon; Lee, Jae Ho; Seong, Je Kyung et al. (2013): Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces hepatic steatosis via increased expression of the hepatic very low-density lipoprotein receptor. In Hepatology 57 (4), pp. 1366–1377. DOI: 10.1002/hep.26126.|
|[P09]||2006||Caruso, Alessandra; Motolese, Marta; Iacovelli, Luisa; Caraci, Filippo; Copani, Agata; Nicoletti, Ferdinando et al. (2006): Inhibition of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway by apolipoprotein E4 in PC12 cells. In Journal of neurochemistry 98 (2), pp. 364–371. DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.03867.x.|