[P03] Human Apolipoprotein AI (Apo AI), Academy Bio-medical Company, Inc.

[P03] Human Apolipoprotein AI (Apo AI)


Academy Bio-Medical Company, Inc.

  • $155.00

Concentration: 1 mg / ml, determined by the Lowry method 
Source: From fresh human plasma that has tested negative for Hepatitis C, HIV-I and HIV-II antibodies as well as Hepatitis surface antigens.
Purification: After series ultracentrifugations, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) is isolated from human plasma. Apo AI is purified from delipidated HDL, followed by gel-filtration.
Purity: ≥ 98% by SDS-PAGE
Buffer: 20 mM Tris-HCl, 140 mM NaCl, 0.02% NaN3, 0.5 mM EDTA, pH 7.4.
Storage: -20°C for long-term storage, 4°C for short- term storage. Aliquot to avoid repeated freezing and thawing.



Apo AI comprises approximately 70% of the protein moiety in HDL. It is a single polypeptide chain consisting of 243 amino acid residues without disulfide bound and with glutamic acid as the C-terminal residue and aspartic acid as the N-terminal residue. The molecular weight is reported to be 28 kDa (Brewer et al., 1978).

The roles of Apo AI in HDL function include reverse cholesterol transportation, lipid cholesterol binding, lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) activation, and receptor binding, which is responsible for cholesterol esterification in plasma. Besides participate in cholesterol metabolism, Apo AI and HDL also suppress neutrophil activation, inhibit bacterial endotoxin, induce trypanosomal lysis, and other physiological activities. (Brouillette et al., 2001)

Apo AI levels may be inversely related to the risk of coronary disease. In previous research, Apo AI may affect diet-induced inflammation by either directly or indirectly altering lipid rafts. (Cheng et al., 2012)

Brewer, H. B., T. Fairwell, A. LaRue, R. Ronan, A. Houser, and T. J. Bronzert. “The amino acid sequence of human Apoa-I, an apolipoprotein isolated from high density lipoproteins.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 80.3 (1978): 623-30.

Brouillette, Christie G., G.m. Anantharamaiah, Jeffrey A. Engler, and David W. Borhani. "Structural Models of Human Apolipoprotein A-I: A Critical Analysis and Review." Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids (2001): 4-46.

Cheng, Andrew M., Priya Handa, Sanshiro Tateya, Jay Schwartz, Chongren Tang, Poulami Mitra, John F. Oram, Alan Chait, and Francis Kim. "Apolipoprotein A-I Attenuates Palmitate-Mediated NF-κB Activation by Reducing Toll-Like Receptor-4 Recruitment into Lipid Rafts." PLoS ONE 7.3 (2012): e33917.



[P03][P04] 2020 Stamatikos, Alexis; Knight, Ethan; Vojtech, Lucia; Bi, Lianxiang; Wacker, Bradley K.; Tang, Chongren; Dichek, David A. (2020): Exosome-Mediated Transfer of Anti-miR-33a-5p from Transduced Endothelial Cells Enhances Macrophage and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Cholesterol Efflux. Human Gene Therapy 31 (3-4), pp. 219–232. DOI: 10.1089/hum.2019.245.
[P03][P04] 2019 Hsu, Yun-Hsun; Toh, Jia-Jia; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Liu, Mine-Yine (2019): Investigating apolipoproteins of human high-density lipoprotein by cyclodextrin-micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Journal of Chromatography. A 1593, pp. 164–173. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2019.01.073.
[P03][P04] 2018 Woller, Sarah A.; Choi, Soo-Ho; An, Eun Jung; Low, Hann; Schneider, Dina A.; Ramachandran, Roshni et al. (2018): Inhibition of Neuroinflammation by AIBP: Spinal Effects upon Facilitated Pain States. In Cell reports 23 (9), pp. 2667–2677. DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.04.110.
[P03][P04] 2016 Han, Chang Yeop; Tang, Chongren; Guevara, Myriam E.; Wei, Hao; Wietecha, Tomasz; Shao, Baohai et al. (2016): Serum amyloid A impairs the antiinflammatory properties of HDL. In The Journal of clinical investigation 126 (1), pp. 266–281. DOI: 10.1172/JCI83475.
[P03][P04] 2016 Yassine, Hussein N.; Feng, Qingru; Chiang, Jiarong; Petrosspour, Larissa M.; Fonteh, Alfred N.; Chui, Helena C.; Harrington, Michael G. (2016): ABCA1-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux Capacity to Cerebrospinal Fluid Is Reduced in Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease. In Journal of the American Heart Association 5 (2). DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.115.002886.
[P03][P04] 2015 Zhang, Hongming; Li, Xiaoyan; Qian, Zongjie (2015): Regulation of macrophage cholesterol efflux and liver X receptor α activation by nicotine. In International journal of clinical and experimental medicine 8 (9), pp. 16374–16378.
[P03][P04] 2014 Braesch-Andersen, Sten; Beckman, Lena; Paulie, Staffan; Kumagai-Braesch, Makiko (2014): ApoD mediates binding of HDL to LDL and to growing T24 carcinoma. In PLoS ONE 9 (12), e115180. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115180.
[P03][P04] 2014 Talayero, Beatriz; Wang, Liyun; Furtado, Jeremy; Carey, Vincent J.; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M. (2014): Obesity favors apolipoprotein E- and C-III-containing high density lipoprotein subfractions associated with risk of heart disease. In J. Lipid Res. 55 (10), pp. 2167–2177. DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M042333.
[P03][P04] 2013 Hibert, Pierre; Prunier-Mirebeau, Delphine; Beseme, Olivia; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Tamareille, Sophie; Lamon, Delphine et al. (2013): Apolipoprotein a-I is a potential mediator of remote ischemic preconditioning. In PLoS ONE 8 (10), e77211. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077211.
[P03][P04] 2013 Umemoto, Tomio; Han, Chang Yeop; Mitra, Poulami; Averill, Michelle M.; Tang, Chongren; Goodspeed, Leela et al. (2013): Apolipoprotein AI and high-density lipoprotein have anti-inflammatory effects on adipocytes via cholesterol transporters: ATP-binding cassette A-1, ATP-binding cassette G-1, and scavenger receptor B-1. In Circulation research 112 (10), pp. 1345–1354. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.300581.
[P03][P04] 2012 Cheng, Andrew M.; Handa, Priya; Tateya, Sanshiro; Schwartz, Jay; Tang, Chongren; Mitra, Poulami et al. (2012): Apolipoprotein A-I Attenuates Palmitate-Mediated NF-κB Activation by Reducing Toll-Like Receptor-4 Recruitment into Lipid Rafts. In PLoS ONE 7 (3), e33917. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033917.
[P03][P04] 2011 Borges, Chad R.; Oran, Paul E.; Buddi, Sai; Jarvis, Jason W.; Schaab, Matthew R.; Rehder, Douglas S. et al. (2011): Building multidimensional biomarker views of type 2 diabetes on the basis of protein microheterogeneity. In Clinical chemistry 57 (5), pp. 719–728. DOI: 10.1373/clinchem.2010.156976.
[P03][P04] 2011 Wang, Yanan; Berbée, Jimmy F. P.; Stroes, Erik S.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Rensen, Patrick C. N. (2011): CETP expression reverses the reconstituted HDL-induced increase in VLDL. In J. Lipid Res. 52 (8), pp. 1533–1541. DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M016659.
[P03][P04] 2009 Hongo, Shigeki; Watanabe, Takuya; Arita, Shigeko; Kanome, Tomoko; Kageyama, Haruaki; Shioda, Seiji; Miyazaki, Akira (2009): Leptin modulates ACAT1 expression and cholesterol efflux from human macrophages. In American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 297 (2), E474-82. DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.90369.2008.
[P03][P04] 2009 Vries-van der Weij, Jitske de; Haan, Willeke de; Hu, Lihui; Kuif, Maarten; Oei, H. Ling D. W.; van der Hoorn, José W. A. et al. (2009): Bexarotene Induces Dyslipidemia by Increased Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Production and Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein-Mediated Reduction of High-Density Lipoprotein. In Endocrinology 150 (5), pp. 2368–2375. DOI: 10.1210/en.2008-1540.
[P03][P04] 2008 Troutt, Jason S.; Alborn, William E.; Mosior, Marian K.; Dai, Jiannong; Murphy, Anthony T.; Beyer, Thomas P. et al. (2008): An apolipoprotein A-I mimetic dose-dependently increases the formation of prebeta1 HDL in human plasma. In J. Lipid Res. 49 (3), pp. 581–587. DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M700385-JLR200.
[P03][P04] 2007 Nagalla, Srinivasa R.; Canick, Jacob A.; Jacob, Thomas; Schneider, Kimberly A.; Reddy, Ashok P.; Thomas, Archana et al. (2007): Proteomic analysis of maternal serum in down syndrome: identification of novel protein biomarkers. In J. Proteome Res. 6 (4), pp. 1245–1257. DOI: 10.1021/pr060539h.
[P03][P04] 2006 Yokoyama, Yuichiro; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Takashima, Motonari; Iizuka, Norio; Terai, Shuji; Oka, Masaaki et al. (2006): Protein level of apolipoprotein E increased in human hepatocellular carcinoma. In International journal of oncology 28 (3), pp. 625–631.
[P03][P04] 2005 Lee, Ching Yin; Lesimple, Alain; Larsen, Asmund; Mamer, Orval; Genest, Jacques (2005): ESI-MS quantitation of increased sphingomyelin in Niemann-Pick disease type B HDL. In J. Lipid Res. 46 (6), pp. 1213–1228. DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M500011-JLR200.
[P03][P04] 2003 Lee, Ching Yin; Krimbou, Larbi; Vincent, Jérôme; Bernard, Chantal; Larramée, Pierre; Genest, Jacques; Marcil, Michel (2003): Compound heterozygosity at the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase-1 (SMPD1) gene is associated with low HDL cholesterol. In Human genetics 112 (5-6), pp. 552–562. DOI: 10.1007/s00439-002-0893-1.
[P03][P04] 2003 Sniderman, Allan D.; Zhang, ZuJun; Genest, Jacques; Cianflone, Katherine (2003): Effects on apoB-100 secretion and bile acid synthesis by redirecting cholesterol efflux from HepG2 cells. In J. Lipid Res. 44 (3), pp. 527–532. DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M200187-JLR200.
[P03][P04] 2002 Rong, Rong; Ramachandran, Sumathi; Penumetcha, Meera; Khan, Nadya; Parthasarathy, Sampath (2002): Dietary oxidized fatty acids may enhance intestinal apolipoprotein A-I production. In J. Lipid Res. 43 (4), pp. 557–564.

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